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- Investigating The Impact of Tall Building Ordinances (TBOs) on the Evolution of Ultra-Tall Buildings Typology: Case Studies in Chicago and Dubai
- Alkoud, Amjad
Zoning ordinances are instruments that tangibly and intangibly shape cities; control urban morphology, demography, and visual identity; and...
Show moreZoning ordinances are instruments that tangibly and intangibly shape cities; control urban morphology, demography, and visual identity; and determine the inhabitants' life quality, well-being, and comfort. Tall building ordinances (TBOs), in turn, control the vertical growth of cities and the development of tall buildings as distinctive actors in the built environment today. With the recent proliferation of developing Ultra-tall buildings in cities around the world, ordinances should offer flexibility, adaptability, and responsiveness to the dynamic nature of emerging needs and technological potentials.This dissertation investigates the emergence of Ultra-tall buildings as a new typology in major metropolises and the interaction between the building ordinances and the construction of Ultra-tall. The work presented in this dissertation implements two primary research methods: cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal studies, documenting supertall buildings completed in two major cities, Chicago and Dubai. The discussions and findings are supported by structured interviews with architects and engineers actively involved in designing and constructing Ultra-tall buildings. The cross-sectional survey comprises all supertall buildings (i.e., buildings above 1000 feet in height) completed as of 2022 in Chicago, the cradle of the "modern" high-rise with 318 towers of 100-plus meters and eight supertall towers of 300-plus meters; and Dubai, the new experimental land of supertall construction with 298 towers of 100-plus meters and 28 towers of 300-plus meters height. The longitudinal case studies provide additional information and knowledge about selected examples in Chicago and Dubai, derived from personal structured interviews conducted in both cities. Several additional survey cases from China, NYC, and London were investigated for their importance and uniqueness in supporting the research discussions and findings. This research aims to bridge the gap between the building ordinance literature and Ultra-tall building design practices on the one hand. On the other hand, it sheds light on the necessity to realize Ultra-tall buildings as a distinct typology entitled to its particular set of ordinances.The research findings are intended to help architects, engineers, policymakers, and planning authorities ensure a sustainable socioeconomic future and mitigate the negative impact of Ultra-tall constructions in major cities. This goal is assumed to be achieved by developing a set of recommendations, strategies, and universal criteria to implement a more flexible and responsive approach toward emerging human needs and technologies.
- A BIM-BASED LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOL OF EMBODIED ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE TALL BUILDINGS
- Ma, Lijian
Today 55 percent of population in the world lives in urban areas which is expected to increase to 68 percent by the year 2050. In the cities,...
Show moreToday 55 percent of population in the world lives in urban areas which is expected to increase to 68 percent by the year 2050. In the cities, high-rise buildings as symbols of the modern cityscape are dominating the skylines, but the data to demonstrate their embodied energy and environmental impacts are scarce, compared to low- or mid-rise buildings. Reducing the embodied energy and environmental impacts of buildings is critical as about 42 percent of primary energy use and 39 percent of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from the building sector. However, it is an overlooked area in embodied energy and environmental impacts of tall buildings. This doctoral research aims to investigate the effects of tall buildings on embodied energy and environmental impacts by using process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology within Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment, which provides construction industry platform to incorporate sustainability information in architectural design. This doctoral research is carried out through a literature review on embodied energy of high-rise buildings. Current LCA methods of buildings are also discussed in the literature review. It then develops a framework for BIM-based assessment of the embodied energy and environmental impacts of tall buildings. To achieve that, a case study of tall reinforced concrete building is applied, by using ISO 14040 and 14044 guidelines with available database, Revit and Tally application in Revit. The author concentrates on embodied energy and environmental impacts of reinforced concrete tall buildings. Finally, the association between design and construction variables with embodied energy and environmental impacts is explored. This research will lead to significant contributions. A comprehensive study on embodied energy and environmental impacts of high-rise building will address a major gap in LCA literature. Researchers and environmental consultants can use the results of this research to create design tools to evaluate environmental impacts of high-rise buildings. Also, architects can use the results of this research to develop insight into the environmental performance of tall buildings in early design stage. Architects and engineers can also use the results to optimize tall building design for low embodied energy and environmental impacts. Finally, the results of this research will enable architects, engineers, planners, and policymakers develop more sustainable built environments.