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- Investigating The Impact of Tall Building Ordinances (TBOs) on the Evolution of Ultra-Tall Buildings Typology: Case Studies in Chicago and Dubai
- Alkoud, Amjad
Zoning ordinances are instruments that tangibly and intangibly shape cities; control urban morphology, demography, and visual identity; and...
Show moreZoning ordinances are instruments that tangibly and intangibly shape cities; control urban morphology, demography, and visual identity; and determine the inhabitants' life quality, well-being, and comfort. Tall building ordinances (TBOs), in turn, control the vertical growth of cities and the development of tall buildings as distinctive actors in the built environment today. With the recent proliferation of developing Ultra-tall buildings in cities around the world, ordinances should offer flexibility, adaptability, and responsiveness to the dynamic nature of emerging needs and technological potentials.This dissertation investigates the emergence of Ultra-tall buildings as a new typology in major metropolises and the interaction between the building ordinances and the construction of Ultra-tall. The work presented in this dissertation implements two primary research methods: cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal studies, documenting supertall buildings completed in two major cities, Chicago and Dubai. The discussions and findings are supported by structured interviews with architects and engineers actively involved in designing and constructing Ultra-tall buildings. The cross-sectional survey comprises all supertall buildings (i.e., buildings above 1000 feet in height) completed as of 2022 in Chicago, the cradle of the "modern" high-rise with 318 towers of 100-plus meters and eight supertall towers of 300-plus meters; and Dubai, the new experimental land of supertall construction with 298 towers of 100-plus meters and 28 towers of 300-plus meters height. The longitudinal case studies provide additional information and knowledge about selected examples in Chicago and Dubai, derived from personal structured interviews conducted in both cities. Several additional survey cases from China, NYC, and London were investigated for their importance and uniqueness in supporting the research discussions and findings. This research aims to bridge the gap between the building ordinance literature and Ultra-tall building design practices on the one hand. On the other hand, it sheds light on the necessity to realize Ultra-tall buildings as a distinct typology entitled to its particular set of ordinances.The research findings are intended to help architects, engineers, policymakers, and planning authorities ensure a sustainable socioeconomic future and mitigate the negative impact of Ultra-tall constructions in major cities. This goal is assumed to be achieved by developing a set of recommendations, strategies, and universal criteria to implement a more flexible and responsive approach toward emerging human needs and technologies.