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- Fault Detection and Localization in Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters
- Hekmati, Parham
This dissertation addresses fault detection, fault localization, and recovery in different topologies of the flying capacitor multilevel...
Show moreThis dissertation addresses fault detection, fault localization, and recovery in different topologies of the flying capacitor multilevel converters to guarantee the safe post-fault operation of the system and maintain load supply. There are multiple contributions of this dissertation, including techniques for device open-circuit fault (OCF) detection in stacked multicell converters (SMCs), a windows detector circuit to track the output terminal voltage levels and current directions, a fast and straightforward active power device OC fault detection and localization technique for the family of flying capacitor multilevel converters (FCMCs), a model-based open circuit fault detection and localization technique for the Buck-FCMC, a new estimator for tracking the voltage of flying capacitors, and fault detection and localization for interleaved converters. Each of these contributions is summarized below.The first contribution of this dissertation proposes a fast and straightforward technique for power device OCF detection in SMCs. The fault detection concept only needs to sense the converter's output terminal voltage and current. The sensed output terminal voltage is compared to a predicted one to detect and localize the OCF. A front-end routing circuit is then added to the SMC to maintain the operation of the converter post fault. The second contribution proposes a window detector circuit to track the output terminal voltage levels and current directions. The window detector circuit detects output terminal voltage level and current direction instead of requiring high sample rates and interrupt loops in the controller.The third contribution proposes a fast and straightforward active power device OCF detection and localization technique for the family of FCMCs, including DC to DC FCMCs, single or multi-phase H-bridge FCMCs, and cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters. This technique only needs to sense voltage and direction of current at the output terminals of the converters to detect and localize the fault. The method compares the measured and the expected terminal voltage while considering the commanded switch states and the terminal current direction. As switches transition to different states, healthy switches are excluded from the set of possible faulty switches until only one faulty switch remains. Coordination of the asynchronous operation of FPGA, DSP, and sensors is addressed for practical implementation. The fourth contribution is a model-based OCF detection and localization technique for the Buck-FCMC using model predictive control. In this technique, state-space equations of the system are developed. Comparison of the measured output inductor with the predicted one from the state-space model is used for the OCF detection and localization. This technique can potentially be used for other converters of the FCMC family. The fifth contribution is a new estimator for tracking the voltage of flying capacitors as the internal states of the FCMC. Using the proposed flying capacitor voltage estimator reduces the number of required sensors compared to the conventional model-based methods. At the same time, the overall technique's robustness to dynamic changes, including startup and load changes, is maintained. The last contribution is open and short circuit switch fault detection and localization for interleaved converters using the harmonic analysis of the output terminal parameters. With this method, monitoring electrical parameters of each leg of the interleaves converters is no longer required for fault detection and localization purposes.