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- A New Control and Decision Support Framework To Avoid Fast-Evolving System Collapse and Cascading Failure
- Guha, Bikiran
The modern power system is a vast and incredibly complex network with a very large number of equipment operating round the clock to reliably...
Show moreThe modern power system is a vast and incredibly complex network with a very large number of equipment operating round the clock to reliably transport electricity from generators to consumers. However, factors such as aging and faulty equipment, extreme and unpredictable weather, cyber attacks and increasing amounts of unpredictable renewable generation have made it increasingly vulnerable to cascading failure and wide-area collapse. Therefore, a lot of work has been done over the years on cascading failure vulnerability analysis and mitigation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the existing literature on this topic focus on preventive analysis and mitigation, mostly from a planning perspective. There is a lack of decision support schemes which can take real-time preventive action when the system becomes vulnerable to cascading failure, while taking into account the various dynamics and uncertainties involved in these types of failures. The only defense under these situations are pre-designed emergency control schemes. However, they are only effective against known vulnerabilities and can make matters worse if not accurately designed and calibrated.This research work has proposed a novel wide-area monitoring protection and control (N-WAMPAC-20) framework designed to make decisions in real-time to assess the vulnerabilities of the system (when a disturbance happens) and to implement mitigation actions, if necessary. The main contributions of this dissertation focus on the disturbance monitoring, real-time control and decision making aspects of this framework. The proposed framework has been divided into two major parts: an offline part and an online part. The offline part continuously runs extreme contingency analysis in the background (using combined dynamics and protection simulators) to generate elements which can assess system vulnerabilities and suggest suitable mitigation actions, if necessary. In this regard, a novel load shedding adjustment scheme is also proposed, which has been shown to be effective against a variety of fast-evolving cascading failure scenarios. The online part consists of real-time disturbance monitoring and decision-making components. The disturbance monitoring component focuses on real-time fault detection and location. If a fault has been identified and located, the real-time decision making component determines the vulnerability of the system, by consulting with the elements designed offline. If vulnerabilities are identified, targeted mitigation actions are implemented. The design and applicability of a prototype of N-WAMPAC-20 has been presented using a case of voltage collapse and a case of wide-area loss of synchronization on a synthetic model of the Texas grid.