MINDFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF SELF-ESTEEM, FUNCTIONAL IMPAIRMENT, AND PSYCOLOGICAL FLEXIBILITY IN AN ADULT ADHD POPULATION
BLANCO, RODNEY M.
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Many adults diagnosed with ADHD have often learned to cope with and adapt to the primary symptoms (i.e. impulsivity, inattention) of ADHD. However, adults with ADHD often cite the secondary symptoms (i.e. decreased self-esteem) that may accompany ADHD as significantly impairing their lives. Much of the research to date on treatment of ADHD has focused on ameliorating the primary symptoms of adult ADHD and less attention has been focused on the secondary symptoms of ADHD. Incorporating a mindfulness intervention into the treatment of ADHD could have wide-ranging benefits as mindfulness is a self-regulatory practice that can improve attention (primary symptom) and emotional regulation (secondary symptom). The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relationships among mindfulness and self-esteem, psychological flexibility, and functional impairment in an adult ADHD sample of 133 adults self-identified as having a diagnosis of ADHD. They completed the following measures: demographics questionnaire, Accepting without judgment subscale of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-2), and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Moderated regression analyses were used to predict an outcome (i.e., psychological flexibility, functional impairment, or self-esteem) from two predictors (i.e., ADHD symptom severity, accepting without judgment) and the interaction between the two predictors. It was found that participants who were more mindful had greater self-esteem and reported less functional impairment.